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      醫學神經科學經典課程

      Medical Neuroscience

      探究人類中樞神經系統的結構和功能。學習人類神經解剖學、神經生理學、神經可塑性及腦科學的新發現等知識對臨床實踐如此重要的原因。

      杜克大學

      Coursera

      醫學健康

      難(高級)

      92 小時

      Sponsored\Ad:本課程鏈接由Coursera和Linkshare共同提供
      • 英語
      • 2969

      課程概況

      醫學神經科學探究人類中樞神經系統的組織和生理機能。本課程是專為健康專業項目研究生一年級的學生設置的。本課程基于細胞的先前研究和分子生物學、普通生理學和人體解剖學等知識。讓學生了解神經功能的基本原理,從細胞和分子機制的神經信號到機體的可塑性、感覺功能和運動系統。本課程側重人腦和脊髓的神經和血管解剖。為中樞神經系統內的局部病變提供一個解剖框架。同時課程重點幫助你去理解精神病和行為障礙的相關的神經生物學基礎。

      本課程的主要目標是讓學生掌握可解釋伴隨著神經損傷、疾病或功能紊亂產生的感覺障礙、行動障礙和認知障礙方面的健康專業知識。目前正從事腦科學高深研究的學生,通過本課程,將學到功能性人類神經解剖學的基本知識,以及如何把神經科學的發現應用到臨床實踐中。

      Medical Neuroscience explores the functional organization and neurophysiology of the human central nervous system, while providing a neurobiological framework for understanding human behavior. In this course, you will discover the organization of the neural systems in the brain and spinal cord that mediate sensation, motivate bodily action, and integrate sensorimotor signals with memory, emotion and related faculties of cognition. The overall goal of this course is to provide the foundation for understanding the impairments of sensation, action and cognition that accompany injury, disease or dysfunction in the central nervous system. The course will build upon knowledge acquired through prior studies of cell and molecular biology, general physiology and human anatomy, as we focus primarily on the central nervous system.

      This online course is designed to include all of the core concepts in neurophysiology and clinical neuroanatomy that would be presented in most first-year neuroscience courses in schools of medicine. However, there are some topics (e.g., biological psychiatry) and several learning experiences (e.g., hands-on brain dissection) that we provide in the corresponding course offered in the Duke University School of Medicine on campus that we are not attempting to reproduce in Medical Neuroscience online. Nevertheless, our aim is to faithfully present in scope and rigor a medical school caliber course experience.

      This course comprises six units of content organized into 12 weeks, with an additional week for a comprehensive final exam:
      – Unit 1 Neuroanatomy (weeks 1-2). This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord.
      – Unit 2 Neural signaling (weeks 3-4). This unit addresses the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal excitability, signal generation and propagation, synaptic transmission, post synaptic mechanisms of signal integration, and neural plasticity.
      – Unit 3 Sensory systems (weeks 5-7). Here, you will learn the overall organization and function of the sensory systems that contribute to our sense of self relative to the world around us: somatic sensory systems, proprioception, vision, audition, and balance senses.
      – Unit 4 Motor systems (weeks 8-9). In this unit, we will examine the organization and function of the brain and spinal mechanisms that govern bodily movement.
      – Unit 5 Brain Development (week 10). Next, we turn our attention to the neurobiological mechanisms for building the nervous system in embryonic development and in early postnatal life; we will also consider how the brain changes across the lifespan.
      – Unit 6 Cognition (weeks 11-12). The course concludes with a survey of the association systems of the cerebral hemispheres, with an emphasis on cortical networks that integrate perception, memory and emotion in organizing behavior and planning for the future; we will also consider brain systems for maintaining homeostasis and regulating brain state.

      你將學到什么

      Brain

      Neurological Disorders

      Neurobiology

      Neurology

      課程大綱

      周1
      完成時間為 2 小時
      Getting Started in Medical Neuroscience

      Let's get started in Medical Neuroscience! Each module in Medical Neuroscience will begin with a brief description like this that provides you with an overview of the module. In this first module, you will get to know something about Prof. White and his career in neuroscience; you will understand the scope of Medical Neuroscience, its learning resources, your responsibilities for maximizing your benefit in this course, and you will learn Prof. White's tips on how best to study and learn.

      At the end of this module, please take the ungraded preliminary quiz, "Are you ready for Medical Neuroscience", to self-assess your background knowledge. Your score on this quiz will not count toward your overall score in this course. However, you should be able to pass this quiz (score 70% or better) if you are ready for the academic challenge of this course. Students who are likely to achieve their goals in Medical Neuroscience should be able to successfully answer nearly all of the quiz questions on their first attempt and feel comfortable with assessment questions at this level of knowledge.

      5 個視頻 (總計 75 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 1 個測驗
      完成時間為 2 小時
      Neuroanatomy: Introducing the Human Brain
      Your introduction to Medical Neuroscience continues as you experience in this module a brief introduction to the human brain, its component
      cells, and some basic anatomical conventions for finding your way around the human central nervous system.
      4 個視頻 (總計 79 分鐘), 1 個閱讀材料, 1 個測驗

      周2
      完成時間為 3 小時
      Neuroanatomy: Surface Anatomy of the Human CNS
      We now begin in earnest our lessons on neuroanatomy with the surface of the human brain, including a brief run through the cranial nerves and the blood supply to the CNS. In this module, you will learn the basic subdivisions of the vertebrate nervous system; however, your focus should be on the cerebral cortex. Along the way, you will be challenged to "build a digital brain" that should help you generate and improve your mental “model” of the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain. Another great way to refine your mental model is through sketching and crafting, so please do the learning objectives that are designed to help you make visible (and tangible) your understanding of the cerebral hemispheres.
      12 個視頻 (總計 129 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗
      完成時間為 4 小時
      Neuroanatomy: Internal Anatomy of the Human CNS
      12 個視頻 (總計 160 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗

      周3
      完成時間為 3 小時
      Neural Signaling: Electrical Excitability and Signal Propagation
      We now turn our attention from the tangible (human neuroanatomy) to the physiological as we explore the means by which neurons generate, propagate and communicate electrical signals. After exploring those structures in the human brain that are visible to the unaided eye, we must now sharpen our focus and zoom-in, as it were, to the unitary level of organization and function in the central nervous system: to the level of individual neurons and their component parts that are crucial for neural signaling.
      9 個視頻 (總計 142 分鐘), 1 個閱讀材料, 1 個測驗

      周4
      完成時間為 5 小時
      Neural Signaling: Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Plasticity
      Let’s continue our studies of neural signaling by learning about what happens at synaptic junctions, where the terminal ending of one neuron
      meets a complementary process of another excitable cell.
      13 個視頻 (總計 226 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗

      周5
      完成時間為 5 小時
      Sensory Systems: General Principles and Somatic Sensation
      We have reached a significant juncture in Medical Neuroscience as we turn our attention to the organization and function of the sensory systems. We will begin our studies with the somatic sensory systems, which includes subsystems for mechanical sensation and pain/temperature sensation. But before we get there, it is worth considering first some organizing principles that will set the stage for studies of somatic sensation and all the other sensory systems of the body.
      16 個視頻 (總計 257 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗

      周6
      完成時間為 3 小時
      Sensory Systems: The Visual System
      This module will provide lessons that are designed to help you understand the basic mechanisms by which light is transduced into electrical signals that are then used to construct visual perceptions in the brain. Your studies of the visual system will benefit you at this point in the course, but also in later studies when we use the visual system as a model for understanding general principles of developmental plasticity. Lastly, it is worth noting how much of the forebrain contains elements of the visual pathways. Thus, injuries and disease in widespread regions of the brain may have a clinically important impact on visual function. All the more reason to learn these lessons well as you progress in Medical Neuroscience.
      12 個視頻 (總計 161 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗

      周7
      完成時間為 6 小時
      Sensory Systems: Audition, Vestibular Sensation and the Chemical Senses
      Our survey of the sensory systems continues as we now turn our attention to the auditory system, the vestibular system, and the chemical sensory systems. As you study this content, notice the similarities and the differences that pertain to the general mechanisms of sensory transduction and the broad organization of the central pathways in each of these sensory systems. In particular, note the similarity in transduction mechanisms for audition and vestibular sensation; and note the “logic” of sensory coding in the chemical sensory systems.
      22 個視頻 (總計 272 分鐘), 3 個閱讀材料, 3 個測驗

      周8
      完成時間為 5 小時
      Movement and Motor Control: Lower and Upper Motor Neurons
      We come now to another pivot in Medical Neuroscience where our focus shifts from sensation to action. Or to borrow a phrase made famous by C.S. Sherrington more than a century ago (the title of his classic text), we will now consider the “integrative action of the nervous system”. We will do so in this module by learning the basic mechanisms by which neural circuits in the brain and spinal cord motivate bodily movement.
      18 個視頻 (總計 252 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗
      完成時間為 1 小時
      Movement and Motor Control: Understanding the Paradigm of Eye Movements
      At this juncture in our exploration of motor control, let’s focus on one of the best studied paradigms for understanding the neural control of
      movement: the eye movement system.
      6 個視頻 (總計 60 分鐘), 1 個閱讀材料, 1 個測驗

      周9
      完成時間為 3 小時
      Movement and Motor Control: Modulation of Movement
      Next, we will consider two major brain systems that modulate the output of upper motor neuronal circuits: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Take note: the output of these systems is NOT directed at lower motor circuits directly; rather, their output engages the motor thalamus and brainstem upper motor neuronal circuits. Thus, the actions of the basal ganglia and cerebellum are to modulate, rather than command, the activities of upper motor neurons. As you study the lessons in this module, appreciate how the basal ganglia and cerebellum function in a somewhat complementary fashion to modulate the initiation and coordination of movement, respectively.
      11 個視頻 (總計 154 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗
      完成時間為 2 小時
      Movement and Motor Control: Visceral Motor Control
      We conclude our survey of movement and motor control by considering the visceral motor system, perhaps better known as the autonomic nervous system. As you study this lesson, consider how the disparate physiology of the viscera has impact not only on the internal state of the body, but also on implicit processing in the forebrain. We will return to this matter when we consider the neurobiology of emotions near the conclusion of Medical Neuroscience
      8 個視頻 (總計 107 分鐘), 1 個閱讀材料, 1 個測驗

      周10
      完成時間為 6 小時
      The Changing Brain: The Brain Across the Lifespan
      This module represents another turning point in Medical Neuroscience. Now that we have surveyed human neuroanatomy and our sensory and motor systems, we are ready to take a step back and consider how this magnificent central nervous system came to be the way that it is. We will also learn how the brain re-wires itself across the lifespan as genetic specification, experience-dependent plasticity and self-organization continue to interact, re-shaping the structure and function of neural circuits throughout the central nervous system.
      23 個視頻 (總計 295 分鐘), 3 個閱讀材料, 3 個測驗

      周11
      完成時間為 4 小時
      Complex Brain Functions: Associational Cortex
      It may surprise you to know that in all of our studies of the neural systems for sensation and action, we have yet to properly account for the organization and function of roughly 75% of the entire cerebral mantle. Thus, only 25% of the cerebral cortex is accounted for by the modal sensory and motor cortical areas. The majority of the human cerebral cortex is multi-modal cortex that associates signals derived from one or more modal systems. We now turn our attention to this “associational cortex” as we consider more complex aspects of brain function.
      11 個視頻 (總計 169 分鐘), 1 個閱讀材料, 1 個測驗

      周12
      完成時間為 4 小時
      Complex Brain Functions: Sleep, Emotion and Addiction
      In this concluding module of Medical Neuroscience, we will consider the neurobiology of sleep and the neurobiology of emotion, including addiction. Both topics involve explorations of complex, widely distributed systems in the forebrain and brainstem that modulate states of body and brain.
      13 個視頻 (總計 205 分鐘), 2 個閱讀材料, 2 個測驗

      周13
      完成時間為 2 小時
      Comprehensive Final Exam
      This module contains materials that will help you prepare for the final challenge in Medical Neuroscience: our clinical case-based,
      Comprehensive Final Exam.
      1 個視頻 (總計 22 分鐘), 1 個閱讀材料, 5 個測驗
      完成時間為 6 分鐘
      Closing Remarks
      Please allow me a few more moments of your time to express my thanks for all your efforts to make it through Medical Neuroscience, and to
      wish you well on all your future endeavors!

      預備知識

      為順利完成本課程的學習,強烈推薦學生具備細胞和分子生物學、系統生理學和人體解剖學本科水平的基礎知識。

      參考資料

      盡管本課程是為具有一定知識背景的學生提供的自學課程,但也鼓勵希望擴大知識面和加強對神經科學了解的學生,完成所有推薦閱讀。本課程主要參考教材《神經科學》,第5版.,作者:普維斯等.(Sinauer Assoc出版社)。本教材附贈神經解剖學軟件, Sylvius 4在線:人類神經解剖學交互式圖集和視覺表,(可用作獨立材料使用)。

      常見問題

      誰應學習本課程?
      若你目前參加了健康職業課程或準備參加該課程,并具有常用預備知識,建議你應該參加本課程。本課程旨在為你提供基本神經科學和臨床神經解剖學所需的基礎知識。若你對前沿的腦科學、生物醫學或生物工程領域的相關研究有興趣,你將需要了解人腦解剖學,并深刻理解神經科學的不斷發現對臨床實踐的重要性。若你只是對人腦結構和功能感到好奇,沒有意愿將這些知識運用到健康專業或研究專業,你又愿意完成所有指定閱讀和作業,你也可以學習本課程,擴展知識。

      本課程的知識難度怎么樣?
      本課程的知識和內容,相當于健康專業研一的學生的知識水平。這就是本課程可能需要每周16-20個小時的學習的原因。

      本課程有規定的教材嗎?
      在沒有指定教材(《神經科學》第5版)的情況下,你也可以順利的完成本課程學習。但是,若你有教材,完成所有推薦閱讀,并通過附帶的神經解剖學軟件進行配套學習,那你的知識水平將得到顯著提高。

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